6 Important Types of Lathe machines

Lathe machine is one of the most useful machines that have acquired an important place in the manufacturing industry.
Lathe machine is employed for different operations like facing, turning, threading etc.

Lathe machine basically keeps the workpiece on a chuck & tool and then rotates it about an axis to execute operations like knurling, drilling, thread cutting, turning and facing to make an end product symmetric at the axis.

What is the main Function of Lathe Machine?

Mainly Lathe machine is operated to remove the excess metal from the product and provide it with the desired shape and size. The lathe machine can produce plane surfaces and cylindrical surfaces to the product placed at a right angle to the axis of rotation.
Lathe Machine - Types & Applications of Lathe Machines [INFOGRAPH]

There are different types of lathe machines that have become part of different manufacturing industries.

1) Speed Lathe Machine: It consists of bed, tailstock, headstock & tool post installed on the adjustable side. It has no carriage or feed box lead screw. The speed of the lathe machine is 1200 to 3600 rpm. It even consists of two or three spindle speed. The depth of the same is less. This type of lathe machine is employed in spinning, woodworking, polishing and centring. The high speed of the headstock spindle has named it a Speed lathe machine.

2. Engine Lathe: It is operated by the pully mechanism or gear mechanism. It is one of the most used lathe machines. It consists of a bed, tailstock, head etc. The head tock even provides multiple spindles speed. Basically, the headstock is stiff in structure.

This type of lathe machine is utilised in workshops and many other industries. It is capable of feeding the cutting tool in the cross as well as a longitudinal direction while being connected with to the lathe axis with the help of leadscrew and carriage feed. It consists of three belts: Geared type, belt driven and motor driven

3. Bench lathe: These lathe machines are used for very detailed work and are normally small in size. These are mounted on bench and consist of similar parts like speed and engine lathe machines. It can perform all the operations of speed and engine lathe machine but the only visible difference is of size.

4) Toolroom Lathe machine: This lathe machine has similar features as of engine lathe machine but the only variation is of its wide range of speed. The spindle speed of the same accelerates from very low to a high speed that is up to 2500 rpm. This machine consists of taper turning attachment, chuck, draw in collect attachment, pump for coolant, steady and follower rest etc.
This machine is used for working on dies gauges, tool, grinding and for many other purposes. It is costlier than other lathe machines.

5)  Capstan Lathe and Turret Lathe machines: The capstan lathe and turret lathe machines are employed in production work and are considered as an extension of engine machine. It consists of hexagonal turrent head and three tool post.  Multiple tools can be fitted and fed into the work piece. This machine supports different operations and can produce different parts at a fast pace. It occupies more floor space and is used in large industries only.
6) Special purpose lathe: These lathe machines are meant for special purpose uses in the production industry. It can perform operations like grinding, drilling, boring, reaming etc.

Lathe machines are highly efficient machines that are employed in different industries for various purposes.  Each type of lathe machine performs different operations and provides the desired end product. So, If you are manufacturing industry then lathe machine should become part of your manufacturing process for the precise outcome.

Written by Yash Shah

This blog written by Mr. Yash Shah is about machine tools including workshop machinery, wood working machines, sheet metal machinery provided by Bhavya Machine Tools, a leading distributors of machine tools in India.